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制药废气处理

来源:admin(传梦环保整理发布)   时间:2018-08-28

制药废气处理


制药废气危害:


制药废物焚烧时产生的气体对大气污染很大,主要含有的污染物有酸性气体(HCl、HF、Sox、Nox等)、粉尘(惰性金属盐类、金属氧化物等)、不完全燃烧产物(一氧化碳、碳黑、烃类等)、重金属(Hg、Pb、Cr等)、有机剧毒性污染物(二垩英、呋喃等)

制药废气处理方法:

处理制药垃圾时,对有机废气处理设备的选型主要是根据以下几种有机物的技术参数来进行选型,分三个方面来寻找根据:一、颗粒污染物的净化 二、酸性气体的净化 三、二垩英和重金属的净化

制药废气处理工艺说明:

1、制药废气---颗粒污染物:废气通过管道系统送至布袋除尘器内,大颗粒的污染物依靠重力的作用沉积到除尘器底部,然后小颗粒的污染物依靠布袋的过滤作用,被截留在布袋的外表面,积累到一定的时间后,反吹灰系统自动打开,从而将布袋表面的灰尘,振打下来,这样反复操作。洁净的空气通过风机增压后外排至室外大气环境。

2、制药废气----酸碱废气:废气通过管道系统送至喷淋洗涤塔,废气自下而上通过喷淋塔,碱(酸)液自上部喷淋而下,经过逆洗后,气体中的酸性或碱性物质被中和而溶解在喷淋液中,达到净化的目的。净化后的气体被除去水雾后再通过风机增压后外排至室外大气环境。

3、制药废气----二噁英或重金属:因制药废气物焚烧后产生极少量的二噁英或重金属废气,只是在主要工艺提升排放指标时使用,且二噁英和重金属含量极低,所以一般是采用活性炭吸附的方法去除此类污染物。

生物制药行业废气处理,以较具代表性的原料药车间为例,其生产过程主要有四个步骤,基本为间歇式投料,24小时生产,在排出的废气中含有诸如甲苯(C6H5CH3)、乙酸乙酯(C4H8O2)、甲醇(CH3OH)、二氧六环(C4H8O2)、三乙胺(C6H15N即二乙基乙胺(CH3CH2)3N)、DMSO(三甲基亚砜 (CH3)2SO)等多种较为复杂的有机物成分,现部分车间已对废气用PVC管和PVC收集罩收集后输送到简易水洗塔经过水洗后排放。排放的废气中有机物的总浓度平均值约为1500 mg/m3左右,对厂区及周边环境造成了较大的污染,环境需要进行有效的治理,以达到国家规定的排放标准。 生物制药干燥废气处理、药行业生产过程中在发酵、干燥、污水处理等工序均产生大量的恶臭异味气体,发酵工段产生的含氨废气(扩散型)未经处理,生产过程中产生的废气已影响企业的环境空气质量和人体健康,亟待治理。

制药废气处理方法:

制药行业涉及大气污染排放的生产工艺种类多,排放节点多,因此其大气污染控制技术包括清洁生产和末端治理两个部分。

清洁生产

通过原料替代,原料储运、投加方式的改进及先进的反应、分离工艺设备的采用,工艺过程中过滤、离心分离、萃取及干燥等排气的高效物料回收等措施,可有效减少包括颗粒物、酸碱及有机物物料等向大气的排放。

制药工业排气的有效收集也是大气污染控制中的非常重要环节。气体的收集方式和捕集率对有效控制大气污染排放及末端治理工程的技术经济性影响巨大。制药企业应针对生产过程中废气污染源和废气组分性质的差异,进行分类、分质的收集并处理及尽可能回收物料以实现达标排放,如因技术经济的因素(如部分真空干燥工艺的排气浓度瞬时可达数百甚至上千克每立方)无法一次性达标的气体,可在进行有效预处理削减污染负荷的基础上,在不影响安全的前提下,通过集合管道排放至最终的高效处理装置进行净化达标后排放。气体收集应包括对挥发性有机物贮运过程产生的废气、反应釜的工艺废气、固液分离过程的废气、干燥过程的废气、废水处理站废气、固废堆场废气的收集。

2.1 常见处理方法比较

选择有机废气处理方法,总体上应根据以下因素:有机污染物质的类型、有机污染物质浓度水平、有机废气的排气温度、有机废气的排放流量、微粒散发的水平、需要达到的污染物控制水平。

有机废气的处理方法种类繁多,特点各异,常用的有冷凝法、吸收法、燃烧法、催化法、吸附法、低温等离子、生物法、光催化氧化法、蓄热式氧化法等。

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