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纺织印染废气来源

来源:admin(传梦环保整理发布)   时间:2018-08-28

纺织印染废气来源:


纺织印染工业废气主要来自两大方面:

一是化纤的纺丝工艺,二是纺织品前处理以及功能性后整理工序。

以黏胶纤维化纤的纺丝工艺为例,需要先将原材料制成纺丝液,而在制造纺丝液的过程中需要加入大量二硫化碳,所以纺丝加工过程会释放出以硫化氢、二硫化碳、二氧化硫为主的有害气体物质。这些有害气体会对操作工造成极大的身体伤害,如果不经过有效处理就排放出去会对周边环境造成严重污染。

热定型机处理是纺织品前处理工艺的重要一环。热定型时,纺织品上的各种染料助剂、涂层助剂都会释放出来,所以最终排气管道口会有大量VOCs(有机挥发物)释放。这些有机气体主要是一些甲醛、多苯类、芳香烃类等有机气体。

纺织品功能性后整理过程中,废气主要来自两个环节。涤纶分散染料的热熔染色工艺中,高温导致一些小分子的染料升华为废气排放出来。棉织物的免烫、阻燃整理都要经过烘焙环节,由于添加了一些化学助剂,烘焙时会出现甲醛等醛类气体和氨气释放的现象。

三、纺织印染处理工艺:

纺织印染废气→预处理设备(粉尘颗粒去除过滤、雾化喷淋塔、水汽分离器、高温降温等设备)→等离子或UV光解除臭废气净化器→高排

 

纺织印染废气来源

喷漆废气处理及工业废气处理工艺简易流程图四、等离子或UV光解除臭废气净化器工作原理:

 

 

 

1、主要采用韵蓝环保特有的脉冲高频高压等离子体电源和双介质齿板放电装置,尖端放电形式产生高浓度离子。

 

  等离子体是一种聚集态物质,其所拥有的高能电子能在毫秒级的时间内,瞬间击穿空气和废气分子,发生一系列分化裂解反应,产生高浓度、高强度、高能量的活性自由基和各种电子、离子等,在与机废气中的分子碰撞时会发生一系列基元物化反应,并在反应过程中产生多种活性自由基和生态氧,即臭氧分解而产生的原子氧。活性自由基可以有效地破坏各种病毒、细菌中的核酸,蛋白质,使其不能进行正常的代谢和生物合成,从而致其死亡;而生态氧能迅速将有机废气分子异味气体分解或还原为低分子无害物质;另外,借助等离子体中的离子与物体的聚合吸附作用,可以对小至亚微米级的细微有机废气颗粒物进行有效的吸附沉降处理。

 

  2、利用特制的高能UV紫外线光束照射恶臭气体,裂解恶臭气体的分子键,降解转变为低分子化学物,如二氧化碳和水等物质。

利用高能臭氧分解空气中的氧分子产生游离氧,即活性氧,因游离氧所携正负电子不平衡所以需与氧分子结合,进而产生臭氧,使呈游离状态的污染物分子与臭氧氧化结合成小分子无害或低害的化合物。如CO2、H2O 等。 UV O2→O- O*(活性氧)O O2→O3(臭氧)。

 

  以上两种方案都能达到高效除恶臭:能高效去除挥发性有机物(VOC)及各种恶臭味,脱臭效率最高可达99%以上。并且无需添加任何物质:只需要设置相应的排风管道和排风动力,还具有适应性强:可适应高浓度,大气量,可每天24小时连续工作,运行稳定可靠的优点。

印染废气处理

吸附-催化燃烧法

原理为:使用具有较大表面积的多孔材料,吸附VOCs成分在其表面,吸附剂选择沸石等材料,废气中的VOCs经过分离后成为洁净气体,直接通过排气筒排放,第一步达到去除废气中VOCs的目的;沸石制成转轮形状,沸石吸附饱和之后转入脱附区,利用一股加热气体(利用苯装置排气的加热)通入沸石中,进入催化燃烧器或蓄热式热氧化器(RTO)催化燃烧处理,排放洁净的二氧化碳和水,燃烧后产生高温气体被引用作为热流体,进行利用,回收热能,达到热能回收利用的目的。

该技术成熟,己成功应用于机械、轻工等行业“三苯”气体的处理,转轮的转速为每小时1-8转。但对于纺织印染行业来讲,更具有优势,可以将催化燃烧产生的热能充分利用,用于本企业,产生经济效益。该工艺特点:

①操作费用低,热能回收可降低运行成本;

②净化率高,净化率达98%以上;

③由于催化燃烧温度低,不产生NOx等污染气体;

④全自动控制、操作简单;

⑤安全性高;

⑥稳定性高。

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