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一文get!VOCs治理技术及其选择策略

来源:admin(传梦环保整理发布)   时间:2018-10-23

一文get!VOCs治理技术及其选择策略

VOCs,也称挥发性有机物,包括非甲烷总烃、苯系物(苯、甲苯、乙苯、二甲苯等)、挥发性卤代烃(二氯甲烷、氯仿、四氯化碳等)、醇类(乙醇、异丙醇、乙二醇等)、醚类(乙醚、丁醚、四氢呋喃等)、脂肪酸、脂类(乙酸乙酯)、酚类(苯酚等)、脂肪醛、脂肪酮、小分子聚合物、可聚合物(丙烯酸、甲醛、环氧乙烷、丙烯腈等)、硫醇类、胺类(乙二胺、三乙胺等)、其他溶剂类(DMF、DMSO等)等有机挥发性有机物。

挥发性有机物的国家及地方政策

VOCs污染,涉及到的行业众多,包括石油化工、制药、涂装、印刷等。VOCs会对人体健康和环境造成危害,在紫外线照射下强氧化性的VOCs和大气中的NOx发生光化学反应,产生O3等二次污染物;同时,VOCs与大气中的颗粒物作用还会形成二次有机气溶胶,它是光化学污染和霾污染的源头。针对VOCs的排放,国家出台了一系列的政策、标准、规范等要求所涉及到的行业、企业严格遵守各项规章制度,例如环保部、发改委、财政部发布《重点区域大气污染防治“十二五” 规划》,从2012.10.29开始执行。

环境保护部、发展改革委、工业和信息化部、财政部、住房城乡建设部、能源局发布《京津冀及周边地区落实大气污染防治行动计划实施细则》,从2013.9.17开始执行;环保部发布的《国家环境保护十二五规划》、《重点行业VOCs污染控制技术指南》、《中华人民共和国大气污染防治法(修订草案)》等。“十三五”规划将VOCs纳入总量控制指标,在总量控制标准的强制约束下,将助推VOCs治理进度的加快。规划指出,VOCs在重点区域、重点行业推进挥发性有机物排放总量控制,全国排放总量下降10%以上。

各种VOCs治理技术及比较

VOCs治理技术包括回收技术和降解技术,其中回收技术包括:吸附技术、吸收技术、冷凝技术和膜技术,降解技术包括热力焚烧技术、催化燃烧技术、生物技术、等离子体技术、光解氧化技术和光催化技术,以及各种技术的复合技术,见如1所示:

各种VOCs治理技术的比较

不同的治理技术都有其特定的适用范围和使用条件,只有在其特定的适用范围和使用条件下才能够达到最为理想的治理效果,在经济上也是最为合理的。

VOCs治理技术的选择原则

VOCs控制方式的选择

VOCs的治理应该包括两部分: 一部分是从源头上控制,也就是减少在生产过程中少使用挥发性的原材料;二是不可以避免的,要从排放标准上来控制。

从源头上控制:

生产、销售、使用含挥发性有机物的原材料和产品的,其挥发性有机物含量需符合规定的限值标准。鼓励生产、销售和使用低毒、低挥发性有机溶剂。

违反本法规定,生产、销售、使用挥发性有机物含量不符合限值标准的原材料和产品的,由质量监督检验检疫部门、工商行政主管部门按照职责没收原材料、产品以及违法所得。

从排放标准控制:

产生含挥发性有机物废气的生产和服务活动,应当在密闭空间或者设备中进行,并按照规定安装、使用污染防治设施;无法封闭的,应当采取措施减少废气排放。

进行产生含挥发性有机物废气的生产和服务活动,未在密闭空间或设备中进行,为按照规定安装、使用污染防治设施,或者未采取相应的减排措施的,由县级以上人民政府环境保护主管部门责令改正,处以罚款;拒不改正的,责令停产整治。

3.2 VOCs治理技术的选择

在VOCs治理技术上,选择应该遵循三个层面:一是目标层面,二是准则层面,三是方案层面,即在最终目标的基础上,考虑实现目标的各个中间环节,选择解决最终问题的方案、措施及实现途径等。以化工类或制药类废气治理为例,说明技术选择应该考虑的层面及因素。

VOCs治理技术的选择

以国家大气综合排放标准或行业大气排放标准(以及地方大气排放标准或地方行业标准)为处理目标,考虑多因素(包括技术因素和经济因素)的情况,根据具体应用环境选择合适的治理技术(包括复合治理技术)。

四、总结

随着VOCs排放监管力度的增加,只有选择合适的治理技术和高性能催化剂材料才能达到国家或地方排放标准,真正解决大气的环境污染问题。

一文get!VOCs治理技术及其选择策略

本文来源:中国环保在线  中国环保在线技术前沿  华钛高科

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